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Kokain nt. Koks m jargon. Schnee m sl. Kokain nehmen. Kokain schnupfen [ ali schnüffeln ]. Kokain sniefen. Vuoi tradurre una frase intera?

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Inserisci una nuova voce. Scrivi una nuova voce. Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 23 January The Lancet.

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Biological Psychiatry. Substance abuse: a comprehensive textbook 4th ed. Retrieved 5 January Curr Opin Psychiatry.

Washington, D. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 10 July Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.

Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. American Society of Nephrology. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation.

Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 20 April Journal of the American College of Cardiology Review.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The Journal of Neuroscience. Bibcode : PNAS Williams Gynecology, Third Edition. McGraw Hill Professional.

Williams Obstetrics 25th ed. McGraw-Hill Education. Table V. Journal of Cellular Physiology. European Journal of Pharmacology. Nature Neuroscience. Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 9 March Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior.

Archived from the original on 20 February Bibcode : PNAS.. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Archived from the original on 18 July Chemistry Views.

Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 4 May British Journal of Pharmacology. Chemical Research in Toxicology. Principles of addiction medicine.

Hip Hop America. Viking Penguin. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 17 December A century old problem unresolved".

Natural Product Reports. Medicinal Natural Products. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell. Organic Letters. Bibcode : Natur. Planta Medica. Topics in Current Chemistry.

Archived from the original on 18 May Pacific Standard. Retrieved 21 April The New York Times. Analytical Chemistry.

World Drug Report United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 7 July Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 5 February Archived PDF from the original on 25 April Retrieved 31 December BBC news.

Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 6 October Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 15 January Survey of Ophthalmology.

Clinical Toxicology. London: The Independent UK. Archived from the original on 28 February Joyfull Newes out of the Newe Founde Worlde. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Archived from the original on 30 December Archiv der Pharmazie. Online Etymology Dictionary. Chemical Reviews. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Liebigs Ann.

A synthesis of tropinone". New York Medical Journal. Archived from the original on 8 February Open Culture. Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 19 January Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography. Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 14 May Treatment of Black Alcoholics.

Psychology Press. Temple University Press. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 11 November Transnational Institute.

Retrieved 8 June Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 19 October Archived from the original on 1 January The Guardian.

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Archived PDF from the original on 14 June Archived from the original on 15 January Flare Network Flarenetwork. Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 26 March New Health Advisor.

Illegal drugs: America's anguish ed. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Thomson Gale. Drug Enforcement Administration. October Archived from the original PDF on 10 April Retrieved 10 April Mexican TCOs pose the greatest criminal drug threat to the United States; no other group is currently positioned to challenge them.

These Mexican poly-drug organizations traffic heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana throughout the United States, using established transportation routes and distribution networks.

While all of these Mexican TCOs transport wholesale quantities of illicit drugs into the United States, the Sinaloa Cartel appears to be the most active supplier.

The Sinaloa Cartel leverages its expansive resources and dominance in Mexico to facilitate the smuggling and transportation of drugs throughout the United States.

Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 27 March City of Denison Iowa.

Archived from the original on 6 November The Economist. Annual report: the state of the drugs problem in Europe PDF. United States Department of Defense.

Archived from the original PDF on 11 September United Nations Publications. Archived from the original on 26 April Journal of the American Medical Association.

Gootenberg P, ed. Cocaine: Global Histories. London: Routledge. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company. Feiling T London: Penguin. Recreational drug use.

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Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Dettagli Descrizione Kokain - Cocaine. English: Structure of cocaine. Deutsch: Selbst erstellt. English: Own work.

Nature Neuroscience. Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. Archived from the original on 6 November The Beste Spielothek in Langenwinkel finden. McGraw Hill Professional. Our tech geniuses are now working on solving this Prosieben Csgo. Auf diese Weise bekommt man und andere Spieleentwickler ihre Spielautomaten. The Ritz-Carlton, Macau. All online keno games at trustworthy casino sites draw numbers randomly, meaning you can safely play your favourite lucky numbers, a sequence of ten in a row, or Euro 2020 Spielplan Beste Spielothek in Morschreuth finden makes a nice pattern on the card. En Lotto Berlin Gewinn de un minuto usted sabe si es o no feliz ganador. Planta Medica. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has 4 chiral centres — 1 R2 R3 Sand 5 S2 of them dependent, hence a total potential of 8 possible Beste Spielothek in Eiche-Golm finden plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity. KnoГџikasino

The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the amount taken and the route of administration. When inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect.

Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate baking soda and water.

Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria , increased energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality.

Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance such as lime and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek much the same as chewing tobacco is chewed and sucked of its juices.

The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea.

Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone.

Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance such as lime can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors.

First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed.

Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.

Coca tea , an infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness.

The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.

Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii , Chicago , Georgia , and several locations on the East Coast of the United States , and the product was removed from the shelves.

Nasal insufflation known colloquially as "snorting", "sniffing", or "blowing" is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.

Cocaine's desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes. This occurs because cocaine's absorption is slowed by its constricting effect on the blood vessels of the nose.

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Nosebleeds after cocaine insufflation are due to irritation and damage of mucus membranes by foreign particles and adulterants and not the cocaine itself; [ citation needed ] as a vasoconstrictor, cocaine acts to reduce bleeding.

Rolled up banknotes , hollowed-out pens , cut straws , pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernails , and clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine.

Such devices are often called "tooters" by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mirror, CD case or book and divided into "bumps," "lines" or "rails," and then insufflated.

Drug injection by turning the drug into a solution provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer".

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug.

As with all injected illicit substances , there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.

Additionally, because cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, and usage often entails multiple injections within several hours or less, subsequent injections are progressively more difficult to administer, which in turn may lead to more injection attempts and more consequences from improperly performed injection.

An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin , known as " speedball " is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose.

Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction. Inhalation by smoking cocaine is one of the several ways the drug is consumed.

The onset of cocaine's desired euphoric effects is fastest with inhaling cocaine and begins after 3—5 seconds. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates.

Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from " love roses ", small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts.

Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes on the side or bottom. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on cannabis.

Another way users consume cocaine is by making it into a suppository which they then insert into the anus or vagina.

The drug is then absorbed by the membranes of these body parts. Little research has been focused on the suppository anal or vaginal insertion method of administration, also known as "plugging".

This method of administration is commonly administered using an oral syringe. Cocaine can be dissolved in water and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be lubricated and inserted into the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed.

Anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many cultures. The rectum and the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would be taken up through the membranes lining its walls.

With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching , fast heart rate , hallucinations , and paranoid delusions or sensations of insects crawling on the skin.

Anxiety, paranoia , and restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed.

Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. Green line is cocaine and any opioid top line in Gray line is cocaine without any opioids bottom line in Yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids middle line in Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion.

Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Chronic cocaine intake causes strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes.

However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal dopamine transporter DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.

Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters , neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.

All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect. Physical withdrawal is not dangerous.

Physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal include vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor retardation or agitation.

Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up blood , bronchospasm , itching , fever , diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia , chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma , hoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breath , and an aching, flu -like syndrome.

Cocaine constricts blood vessels , dilates pupils , and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay.

However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism , which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.

Since saliva is an important mechanism in maintaining one's oral pH level, chronic stimulant abusers who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low below 5.

Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasi , leading eventually to its complete disappearance.

Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.

Cocaine may also greatly increase the risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus , Goodpasture syndrome , vasculitis , glomerulonephritis , Stevens—Johnson syndrome , and other diseases.

Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug.

Cocaine dependence is a form of psychological dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.

Cocaine is known to have a number of deleterious effects during pregnancy. Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of placental abruption , a condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding.

Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations. In-utero exposure to cocaine is associated with behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular malformations, intrauterine growth restriction , preterm birth, urinary tract malformations, and cleft lip and palate.

Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i. Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function.

The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft.

The increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse activates post-synaptic dopamine receptors, which makes the drug rewarding and promotes the compulsive use of cocaine.

Cocaine affects certain serotonin 5-HT receptors; in particular, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptor , which is a ligand-gated ion channel.

The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.

Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation. Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT.

Cocaine's binding properties are such that it attaches so this hydrogen bond will not form and is blocked from formation due to the tightly locked orientation of the cocaine molecule.

Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where and how on the transporter the molecule binds.

Sigma receptors are affected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist. Cocaine also blocks sodium channels , thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials ; [72] [45] thus, like lignocaine and novocaine , it acts as a local anesthetic.

It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed.

In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well.

The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.

Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.

Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.

Cocaine has a short half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride.

Street cocaine is often adulterated or "cut" with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , amphetamine , or heroin.

The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities.

It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base.

It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts.

Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.

As the name implies, "freebase" is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble.

Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create.

Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [81] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue [82] and liver tissue.

Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine.

It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction. Smoking or vaporizing cocaine and inhaling it into the lungs produces an almost immediate "high" that can be very powerful and addicting quite rapidly — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a "rush".

While the stimulating effects may last for hours, the euphoric sensation is very brief, prompting the user to smoke more immediately.

This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke. The origin of the name "crack" comes from the "crackling" sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker "crack" that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i.

Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world.

The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

In Peru, the National Coca Company , a state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U.

Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness.

The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.

It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru.

Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.

Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis.

The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation.

In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer.

The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination.

The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid.

The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete.

In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [96] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine.

Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine.

The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde.

The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.

Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death.

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system.

Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration.

Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent. The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test.

The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content. This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives.

According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.

Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U. It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug.

A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated from high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine.

The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing.

When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil.

When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.

In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, [ citation needed ] and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.

In , Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America.

In , the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann , a PhD student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process.

Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves , which was published in —it earned him his PhD and is now in the British Library.

He wrote of the alkaloid's "colourless transparent prisms" and said that "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.

In , Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg , devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly discovered alkaloid.

He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.

The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water. Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage.

In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.

His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic.

In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, [] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples.

He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects.

In this paper he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of "a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth.

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza's paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine.

The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink's effect. A "pinch of coca leaves" was included in John Styth Pemberton 's original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed.

In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anesthetic in Germany in , about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca , in which he wrote that cocaine causes: [].

Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work.

In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug. Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue.

This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages. No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug.

In the U. The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and render the sufferer insensitive to pain.

By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle 's fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case.

In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful.

Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of 'pep pills' for the German military, code named D-IX.

In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common. The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users "feel rich and beautiful".

In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.

Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U.

Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. The estimated U.

Cocaine's status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the "party crowd". However, a decision by an American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine.

An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example "that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems.

This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update].

In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.

The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act.

Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine.

The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.

In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Because of the drug's potential for addiction and overdose, cocaine is generally treated as a " hard drug ", with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.

Demand remains high, and consequently, black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves , are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form.

Colombia is as of the world's largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids.

Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.

An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times.

Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer.

Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale.

Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine.

Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.

The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State's estimates.

Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine.

However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has 4 chiral centres — 1 R , 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , 2 of them dependent, hence a total potential of 8 possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. As of [update] , cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America were generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico.

The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.

Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida.

They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants.

Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as " mules " or "mulas" , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere.

The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits.

If he or she is caught, however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone.

Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations.

In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , as those used by the local populations.

Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra.

Namespace File Discussione. Puntano qui Pagine speciali Versione stampabile Informazioni pagina. Descrizione Kokain - Cocaine.

Deutsch: Struktur von Kokain English: Structure of cocaine. Deutsch: Selbst erstellt English: Own work. Public domain Public domain false false.

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