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However, the most universally recognized cultural origin of Samba is Lundu, a rhythm that was brought to Brazil by the Bantu slaves from Africa.

Lundu reveals, in a way, the amalgamation of black slaves and white Portuguese and indigenous cultures. When the African slaves where imported, it was named the "semba" and with the introduction of the Arabic Pandeiro tambourine , brought into the Roda by the Portuguese, the "Samba" was molded into the form of dance it is now.

All participants, including beginners, are invited to join the dance and observe as well as imitate. Usually, only the women dance after each other and they are surrounded by others dancing in a circle and clapping their hands.

The choreography is often spontaneous and is based on movements of the feet, legs and hips. One of the most typical moves is the umbigada which is clear Bantu influence, where the dancer invites her successor into the circle's center.

The factor that frequently draws the attention of most people to the rhythm is the unusually-accented syncopated beat. This syncopated rhythm is also an indication of Black resistance against cultural assimilation.

The Samba of Roda in particular was considered an expression of freedom and identity of the underprivileged and became a means of liberation.

The Samba de Roda has significantly waned during the twentieth century due to economic decline and increased poverty in the region. The effects of mass media and competition from popular modern music have also devalued this tradition among the younger generation.

Finally, the weakening of the Samba de Roda was heightened through the aging of practitioners and demise of those who made the musical instruments.

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Main article: Samba de Gafieira. April Dance Research. Luso-Brazilian Review. Diccionario de vocabulos brazileiros. After a careful explanation of the parade-theme, many times done by the Carnival Art Director himself, composers may ask questions in order to clarify the synopsis, so they can start writing the samba-enredos.

It ends up after with somewhere between three and four sambas, which are competing in the great Final do Samba.

The winner finally becomes the samba schools hymn of the year. After months of deliberation, the new samba-enredo is chosen and becomes the voice of the samba school for the next year's Carnaval.

The most important night in this process, is called the "final de samba", or samba final, when the samba school decides between two or three samba-enredos.

At the end of the process, the winning samba-enredo is selected, and it is this song that is sung during the school's parade in the sambadrome.

This process normally happens in Brazil from August until November, and today is highly professionalized, with samba-composers hiring fans, producing CDs, banners, and throwing parties to promote their samba-enredo.

The final chosen song, today, is also uploaded on the school's YouTube and Facebook pages to reach even more fans. It is important to note that the samba-enredo is one of the criteria used by the Judging committee to decide who is the winner of the Carnaval parade competition.

The samba-enredo must be well sung by the samba school's puxador or singer or the school will lose points. While the puxador sings, everyone marching in the Carnaval parade sings the samba-enredo along with him, and harmony is another judging criterion.

During the first decade of the 20th century, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity.

However, in , " Pelo Telefone " "By Telephone" was recorded, [17] and it is considered the first true samba.

Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was created by a collective of musicians who participated in celebrations at the house of Tia Ciata Aunt Ciata.

It was eventually registered by Donga and the Almeida National Library. From that moment on, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then developing its own place in the music market.

As the samba consolidated as an urban and modern expression, it began to be played on radio stations, spreading across the hills and neighborhoods to the affluent southern areas of Rio de Janeiro.

Initially viewed with prejudice and discrimination because it had black roots, the samba, because of its hypnotic rhythms and melodic intonations in addition to its playful lyrics, eventually conquered the white middle class as well.

The samba is frequently associated abroad with football and Carnaval. Bossa nova finally entered the country into the world of samba music. Brazilian percussionist and studio musician Paulinho Da Costa , currently based in Los Angeles, incorporates the rhythms and instrumentation of the samba into the albums of hundreds of American, European and Japanese artists — including producer Quincy Jones , jazz performer Dizzy Gillespie , pop singer Michael Jackson and vocalist Barbra Streisand.

The success of the samba in Europe and Japan only confirms its ability to win fans, regardless of their language. Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools on European soil and scattered among countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Already in Japan, the records invest heavily in the launch of former sambistas' set of discs, which eventually created a market composed solely of catalogs of Japanese record labels.

These stands form poor communities that these people called the favelas later the term became synonymous with the irregular buildings of the poor.

At the same time, there were the samba-corrido , a line that had more work together with the rural Bahian accent, and the samba-chulado, a more rhyming and melodic style that characterized the urban samba carioca.

By the s, Republican propagandists were attempting to prohibit samba on the pretext that folklorist dances shamed Brazil's national image. It would take the edict of a federal administration to halt the persecution of neighborhood samba groups and to recognize officially their parades.

Later, the views of anthropologist Gilberto Freyre, and Getrllio Vargas, who became Brazil's new populist president in , provided the country with fresh perspectives on racial mixing.

Under Vargas, samba schools and carnaval parades were supported by the state and quickly established themselves all over Brazil. Samba significantly benefited from these political efforts to create a homogeneous national culture.

While certain types of music suggested different racial or class origins, samba dissipated social antagonisms and helped unify a society that varied in its origins, appearance, and ways of living and thinking.

Samba's triumph over the airwaves allowed it to penetrate all sectors of Brazilian society. According to anthropologist Hermano Vianna, configuring Samba as a symbol of Brazilianness was possible thanks to the cultural exchange between the working classes and intellectual elite.

The urban carioca samba is the anchor of 20th century "Brazilian samba" par excellence. The rural Bahia samba acquired additional names as choreographic variations — for example, the "samba-de-chave" , where the soloist dancer faking looking roda in the middle of a key, and when found, was replaced.

With no chorus, the samba is called samba-corrido , which is an uncommon variant. The chants were taken by one singer, one of the musicians, or soloist dancer.

Another peculiarity of Bahian samba was a form of competition that dances sometimes presented: it was a dispute between participants to see who performed better.

Besides the umbigada , common to all the bahianian samba, the Bahia presented three basic steps: corta-a-jaca , separa-o-visgo , and apanha-o-bag.

The instruments of the Bahian samba were pandeiros , shakers , guitars, and sometimes the castanets and berimbaus. In rural areas, samba can occur without the traditional umbigada.

There are also other choreographic variations—the dancers may be placed in rows with men on one side and women on another.

The instruments of the samba paulista were violas and pandeiros. The group is still active, but with a different lineup. Tia Ciata, grandmother of the composer Bucy Moreira , was responsible for the sedimentation of samba carioca.

According to the folklore of that time, for a samba musician to achieve success, he would have to pass the house of Tia Ciata and be approved on the rodas de samba.

Many compositions were created and sung in improvisation, where the samba Pelo Telefone from Donga and Mauro de Almeida , samba for which there were also many other versions, but to come to the history of samba, Pelo Telefone was the first recorded Samba, in Still, the song is written and discussed, and its proximity to the maxixe made it finally be designated samba-maxixe.

The growing shantytowns favelas in the hills of suburban Rio would become the home of new musical talents. Almost simultaneously, the samba carioca , which was born in the city center, would climb the slopes of the hills and spread outside the periphery, to the point that, over time, it came to be identified as samba de morro samba from the hills.

It was a slow and rhythmic samba music and had an emphasis on melody and generally easy acceptance. This aspect was later influenced by the rhythms of foreigners, first by foxtrot in the s and then bolero the s.

This kind of samba was characterized by extensive compositions of melody and patriotic verses. Die Annahme, dass die brasilianische Bezeichnung Samba auf Semba zurückgeht, ist naheliegend aber nicht gesichert.

Heute ist er weitgehend vom Samba verdrängt. Daneben gelten auch der Lundu und der Jongo als Vorläufer des Samba.

Mit dem Choro entwickelte sich um in Rio de Janeiro der erste nationale brasilianische Musikstil, der durch die Erfindung der Schallplatte landesweite Verbreitung fand.

Er entstand aus einer Fusion des portugiesischen Fado , populärer europäischer Tanzmusik, wie Polka , Walzer , Mazurka , Xote und Quadrillen , mit afrobrasilianischer Musik, z.

Zur gleichen Zeit entstand der brasilianische Tango Maxixe — noch vor dem argentinischen , mit dem er nur wenig gemeinsam hat — und wurde ebenfalls von den Choro-Ensembles gespielt.

Nach der brasilianischen Unabhängigkeit nahmen Militär- und Blasmusikkapellen Choros in ihr Repertoire auf. Gespielt und getanzt wurde er vor allem in der unteren Mittelschicht.

Seine Blütezeit erlebte er zwischen und , wird aber bis heute gepflegt. Die meisten Chorokompositionen sind durch ein relativ hohes Tempo, eine sambatypische Melodie- und Rhythmusstruktur und Improvisationen über das Thema der Komposition geprägt.

Choro-Ensembles bestanden traditionell aus zwei Gitarren , einem Cavaquinho und einer Flöte als Soloinstrument. Ergänzt wurden sie später häufig vom Pandeiro und weiteren Perkussionsinstrumenten, Klarinette und Mandoline Bandolim.

In seiner modernen Form entstand der Samba um in Rio de Janeiro. Samba entstand aus der Mischung von Choro mit den Batuques , die in den Vorstädten von Rio gespielt wurden.

Mit Pixinguinha war ein Musiker von besonderer Bedeutung für den Durchbruch des Samba, der schon in der Choro-Szene eine herausgehobene Position hatte.

Portela, die heute zu den traditionsreichsten der Escolas zählen. Damit wurde die Musik ein wichtiges Sprachrohr der unteren Schichten Rios, denen überwiegend die schwarze Bevölkerung angehörte.

In diesen Zeiten waren die Comunidade und die verschiedenen Alas jedoch den heutigen Gemeinschaftsgefügen de Escolas gegenüber externen Mitgliedern, die nicht vom zugehörigen Morro stammten, sehr abgeschlossen.

Wollte man beispielsweise dem Ala dos compositores beitreten, musste man der Sambaschule nicht nur bereits in familiärer Tradition verbunden sein, sondern auch eine Prüfung vor der gesamten Gemeinschaft der Komponisten absolvieren, in der man sein künstlerisches Können, seine musikalische und poetische Kreativität unter Beweis stellte, sondern darüber hinaus auch das Vermögen, dem besonderen künstlerischen Stil der Escola in den eigenen Kompositionen gerechnet zu werden.

Wurde man dann in den Ala dos compositore s aufgenommen, durfte man sich dennoch nicht gleich im selben Jahr an der Komposition in einer Parceria beteiligen, sondern musste eine Art einjähriges "Praktikum" absolvieren, in dem man zuschaute und von den älteren lernte.

Mit dem Aufkommen des Radios verbreitete sich der Samba sehr schnell und wurde in den er Jahren zum musikalischen Pulsgeber des Landes.

Der zurückhaltende Gesang kehrte den operettenhaften Belcanto -Stil, der sich im Samba der er Jahre durchgesetzt hatte, in sein Gegenteil um.

Der Desfile genannte Umzug der Sambaschulen mit jeweils mehreren hundert Musikern und Tänzern wird landesweit übertragen und steht musikalisch ganz im Zeichen des Samba enredo.

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